Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner.
Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration — existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. Establishing a global market for cleaner coal technologies is key to unlocking the potential of technology — one of ten major recommendations made in this study.
Coherence for Health - Innovation for New Medicines for Infectious Diseases In developing countries, 6 out of 10 people die from infectious diseases. Nearly 1 billion humans suffer from a neglected infectious disease, according to the World Health Organisation. This book looks at ways of improving the availability of medicines for infectious diseases through strengthened coherence in health, trade, science and technology, development co-operation and finance.
Considering Timescales in the Post-closure Safety of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods.
A physician who cannot generate trust will face more challenges than the one who receives the trust of the patients.
In developing countries, 6 out of 10 people die from infectious diseases. Nearly 1 billion humans suffer from a neglected infectious disease. NOORDWIJK MEDICINES AGENDA - Changing the Face of Innovation Coherence for Health: Innovation for New Medicines for Infectious Diseases.
A patient with hope is far better off than one without. Physicians are often confronted with questions of life and death, resource allocations, and dual loyalties when serving a single patient and at the same time respecting the needs of a community or population. The questions are often too difficult and the problems too burdensome for one person alone. We are far away from having answers for all such questions, but for many, the WMA can provide the ethical guidance that protects patients, supports physicians, and duly considers the interests of the communities and populations they both belong to.
Finally, science is what distinguishes medicine from well-intended kindness. In medicine, quality care and ethical conduct cannot be separated from sound science. Still, despite our sincere and continual quest for increased scientific knowledge, understanding and solu- tions, we will never be protected from all mistakes.
Therefore, practicing the science of medicine with faithful adherence to clear ethical guidance is the best we can do. It is proof of our continued engagement with our colleagues in the different parts of this world and our commitment to our patients, wherever and whoever they may be. It is a living document and the WMA will continue to improve and expand it, in service to the profession and the health of those we serve as physicians. It is ethical to disclose confidential information when the patient consents to it or when there is a real and im- minent threat of harm to the patient or to others and this threat can be only removed by a breach of confidentiality.
This communication should respect patient confi- dentiality and be confined to necessary information.
The World Medical Association WMA has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material and data. The Declaration is intended to be read as a whole and each of its constituent para- graphs should be applied with consideration of all other relevant paragraphs.
Consistent with the mandate of the WMA, the Declaration is addressed primarily to physicians. The WMA encourages others who are involved in medical research in- volving human subjects to adopt these principles. It is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health, well-being and rights of patients, including those who are involved in medical research.
Medical progress is based on research that ultimately must include studies involving human subjects. The primary purpose of medical research involving human subjects is to understand the causes, development and effects of diseases and improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions methods, procedures and treatments. Even the best proven interventions must be evaluated continually through research for their safety, effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility and quality. Medical research is subject to ethical standards that promote and ensure respect for all human subjects and protect their health and rights.
While the primary purpose of medical research is to generate new knowledge, this goal can never take precedence over the rights and interests of individual research subjects. It is the duty of physicians who are involved in medical research to protect the life, health, dignity, integrity, right to self-determination, privacy, and confidentiality of personal information of research subjects.
The responsibility for the protection of research subjects must always rest with the physician or other health care pro- fessionals and never with the research subjects, even though they have given consent.
Physicians must consider the ethical, legal and regulatory norms and standards for research involving human subjects in their own countries as well as applicable international norms and standards. No national or international ethical, legal or regulatory requirement should reduce or eliminate any of the protections for research subjects set forth in this Declaration.
Medical research should be conducted in a manner that minimises possible harm to the environment. Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted only by individuals with the appropriate ethics and scientific education, training and qualifications.
Re- search on patients or healthy volunteers requires the supervision of a competent and appropriately qualified physician or other health care professional. Groups that are underrepresented in medical research should be provided appropriate access to participation in research. Physicians who combine medical research with medical care should involve their patients in research only to the extent that this is justified by its potential preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic value and if the physician has good reason to believe that participation in the research study will not adversely affect the health of the patients who serve as research subjects.
Appropriate compensation and treatment for subjects who are harmed as a result of participating in research must be ensured. In medical practice and in medical research, most interventions involve risks and burdens.
Medical research involving human subjects may only be conducted if the importance of the objective outweighs the risks and burdens to the research subjects. All medical research involving human subjects must be preceded by careful assess- ment of predictable risks and burdens to the individuals and groups involved in the research in comparison with foreseeable benefits to them and to other individuals or groups affected by the condition under investigation.
Social Anthropology and ethnology - Archaeology and Prehistory - Architecture, space management - Geography - Cultural heritage and museology - Sociology. Ryan, C. Redlin, , Does technological change drive inclusive industrialization? The utmost respect for human life is to be maintained even under threat, and no use made of any medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity. Int Labour Rev.
Measures to minimise the risks must be implemented. The risks must be continuously monitored, assessed and documented by the researcher. Physicians may not be involved in a research study involving human subjects unless they are confident that the risks have been adequately assessed and can be satis- factorily managed. When the risks are found to outweigh the potential benefits or when there is con- clusive proof of definitive outcomes, physicians must assess whether to continue, modify or immediately stop the study. Some groups and individuals are particularly vulnerable and may have an increased likelihood of being wronged or of incurring additional harm.
All vulnerable groups and individuals should receive specifically considered protec- tion. Medical research with a vulnerable group is only justified if the research is responsive to the health needs or priorities of this group and the research cannot be carried out in a non-vulnerable group. In addition, this group should stand to benefit from the knowledge, practices or interventions that result from the research. Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature, other relevant sources of information, and adequate laboratory and, as appropriate, animal experimentation.
The welfare of animals used for research must be respected. The design and performance of each research study involving human subjects must be clearly described and justified in a research protocol. In clinical trials, the protocol must also describe appropriate arrangements for post- trial provisions. The research protocol must be submitted for consideration, comment, guidance and approval to the concerned research ethics committee before the study begins.
This committee must be transparent in its functioning, must be independent of the researcher, the sponsor and any other undue influence and must be duly qualified. It must take into consideration the laws and regulations of the country or countries in which the research is to be performed as well as applicable international norms and standards but these must not be allowed to reduce or eliminate any of the protections for research subjects set forth in this Declaration.
The committee must have the right to monitor ongoing studies. The researcher must provide monitoring information to the committee, especially information about any serious adverse events. No amendment to the protocol may be made without con- sideration and approval by the committee. Every precaution must be taken to protect the privacy of research subjects and the confidentiality of their personal information. Participation by individuals capable of giving informed consent as subjects in medical research must be voluntary. Although it may be appropriate to consult family mem- bers or community leaders, no individual capable of giving informed consent may be enrolled in a research study unless he or she freely agrees.
In medical research involving human subjects capable of giving informed consent, each potential subject must be adequately informed of the aims, methods, sources of funding, any possible conflicts of interest, institutional affiliations of the researcher, the anticipated benefits and potential risks of the study and the discomfort it may entail, post-study provisions and any other relevant aspects of the study.
The potential subject must be informed of the right to refuse to participate in the study or to with-.
europeschool.com.ua/profiles/ticoticas/cita-casual-significado.php Special attention should be given to the specific information needs of individual potential subjects as well as to the methods used to deliver the information.